Digital Fluency Notes – NEP – Bangalore City University

May 17, 2022 By techwithin 0

Digital Fluency Notes – NEP – Bangalore City University

Unit 1:

Operating Systems: An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware, software resources and provides common services of computer program.

Types of Operating Systems:

  1. Single-Tasking and Multitasking Operating System

A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running concurrently; this is achieved by time sharing where the available processor time is divided between multiple processes.

  •  Single and Multi User Operating Systems

Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem.

            A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources such as disk space belonging to multiple users and the system permits multiple users to interact with system at the same time.

  • Distributed Operating System

A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct, networked computers and makes them appear to be a single computer as all computations are distributed.

  • Templated Operating System

In the distributed and cloud computing context of an operating system, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system, then saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used in virtualization and cloud computing management and is common in larger server warehouses.

  • Embedded Operating Systems:

Embedded Operating Systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems. They are designed to operate on small machines with less autonomy (Ex. PDA). They are very compact and able to operate with a limit amount of resources.

Windows CE and Minix are some examples of embedded operating systems.

  • Real-time Operating System

A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific movement in time. A real-time operating system may be single or multi-tasking but when multi-tasking if uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved such an event driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events, whereas time-sharing operating system switch task based on clock interrupts.

  • Library Operating System

A library operating system is one which the services that a typical operating system provides such as networking are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel a specialized single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded.

Major Functions of the Operating Systems

  1. Controls the backing store and peripherals such as scanners and printers.
  2. Deal with transfer of programs in and out of memory.
  3. Organises the use of memory between programs.
  4. Organises processing time between programs.
  5. Maintains security and access rights of users.
  6. Deals with errors and user instructions.
  7. Allows the user to save files to a backing store.
  8. Provides the interface between the user and computer.
  9. Issues simple error messages.

Types of User – Interface

  1. Command Line Interface (CLI)
  2. Graphical User Interface (GUI)
  3. Menu Driven User Interface
  4. Touch User Interface
  5. Form based User Interface
  6. Natural Language User Interface
  1. Command Line Interface: A command line interface allows the user to interact with the computer by typing in command. The computers displays a prompt, the user keys in the command and presses enter or return.

Features of Command Line Interface (CLI):

  1. Commands must be typed correctly and in the right order or the command will not work.
  2. Experienced users who know the commands can work very quickly without having to find their way around menu.
  3. An advantage of command driven is that they do not need the memory and processing power of the latest computer and will often run on the lower spec machines.
  4. Command driven programs do not need to run in windows.

Example of Command Driven is MS-DOS.

  • Graphical User Interface: The graphical user interface is a form of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and audio indicator such as primary notation, instead of text-based UIs, typed command labels or text navigation.

Features of Graphical User Interface (GUI):

  1. They are much easier to use for beginners.
  2. They enable you to easily exchange information between software using cut and paste or drag and drop.

Example of GUI OS: Microsoft Windows, Apple OSX, Ubuntu, etc.


  1. MS-DOS, Windows 95, 98, 2000, ME, XP, Vista, 7, 8, 8.1, 10, 11
  2. MAC OS
  3. Linux : Cent OS, Ubuntu
  4. Solaris
  5. Android
Windows 7 Desktop Image

Source: Google, Wiki, BBC,

Download the notes in PDF format here.

Unit 2 Notes to follow